The views expressed are those of the author s and are not necessarily those of Scientific American. Whenever I see my year-old daughter brimming over with so much energy that she jumps up in the middle of supper to run around the table, I think to myself, "those young mitochondria.
Mitochondria are our cells' energy dynamos. Descended from bacteria that colonized other cells about 2 billion years, they get flaky as we age. A prominent theory of aging holds that decaying of mitochondria is a key driver of aging. While it's not clear why our mitochondria fade as we age, evidence suggests that it leads to everything from heart failure to neurodegeneration, as well as the complete absence of zipping around the supper table. Recent research suggests it may be possible to reverse mitochondrial decay with dietary supplements that increase cellular levels of a molecule called NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
But caution is due: While there's promising test-tube data and animal research regarding NAD boosters, no human clinical results on them have been published. NAD is a linchpin of energy metabolism, among other roles, and its diminishing level with age has been implicated in mitochondrial deterioration. In support of that idea, half a dozen Nobel laureates and other prominent scientists are working with two small companies offering NR supplements.
Sinclair, recall, achieved fame in the mids for research on yeast and mice that suggested the red wine ingredient resveratrol mimics anti-aging effects of calorie restriction. This time his lab made headlines by reporting that the mitochondria in muscles of elderly mice were restored to a youthful state after just a week of injections with NMN nicotinamide mononucleotidea molecule that naturally occurs in cells and, like NR, boosts levels of NAD. It should be noted, however, that muscle strength was not improved in the NMN-treated mice—the researchers speculated that one week of treatment wasn't enough to do that despite signs that their age-related mitochondrial deterioration was reversed.
NMN isn't available as a consumer product. But Sinclair's report sparked excitement about NR, which was already on the market as a supplement called Niagen. Niagen's maker, ChromaDex, a publicly traded Irvine, Calif. In the wake of Sinclair's paper, Niagen was hailed in the media as a potential blockbuster.
Dubbed Basis, it's only offered online by the company. Elysium is taking no chances when it comes to scientific credibility.
Niagen, Nicotinamide Riboside Side Effects vs. NAD+ Benefits
Its website lists a dream team of advising scientists, including five Nobel laureates and other big names such as the Mayo Clinic's Jim Kirkland, a leader in geroscience, and biotech pioneer Lee Hood. I can't remember a startup with more stars in its firmament.
Details of the study won't be out until it's reported in a peer-reviewed journal, the company said. ChromaDex also brandishes Nobel credentials: Roger Kornberg, a Stanford professor who won the Chemistry prize inchairs its scientific advisory board. The NAD findings tie into the ongoing story about enzymes called sirtuins, which Guarente, Sinclair and other researchers have implicated as key players in conferring the longevity and health benefits of calorie restriction.
Resveratrol, the wine ingredient, is thought to rev up one of the sirtuins, SIRT1, which appears to help protect mice on high doses of resveratrol from the ill effects of high-fat diets.
A slew of other health benefits have been attributed to SIRT1 activation in hundreds of studies, including several small human trials. One of those things is to induce formation of new mitochondria. The researchers discovered that cells' nuclei send signals to mitochondria that are needed to maintain their normal operation. SIRT1 helps insure the signals get through. When NAD levels drop, as they do with aging, SIRT1 activity falls off, which in turn makes the crucial signals fade, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and all the ill effects that go with it.
NAD boosters might work synergistically with supplements like resveratrol to help reinvigorate mitochondria and ward off diseases of aging. Elysium is banking on this potential synergy—its NR-containing supplement includes a resveratrol-like substance called pterostilbene pronounced tero-STILL-beanwhich is found in blueberries and grapes. While resveratrol has hogged the anti-aging spotlight over the past decade, unsung researchers in places like Oxford, Miss.
The pterostilbene molecule is nearly identical to resveratrol's except for a couple of differences that make it more "bioavailable" animal studies indicate that about four times as much ingested pterostilbene gets into the bloodstream as resveratrol. Test-tube and rodent studies also suggest that pterostilbene is more potent than resveratrol when it comes to improving brain functionwarding off various kinds of cancer and preventing heart disease.
Elysium isn't the only pterostilbene vendor. In fact, ChromaDex also offers pterostilbene for supplements separately from Niagen. How excited should we be about all this? If I were a middle-aged mouse, I'd be ready to spend some of the nickels and dimes I'd dragged off the sidewalk to try NR supplements.What if there was a compound that could turn back time, restore energy, improve athletic performance, bring back clarity of thought, reverse depression and help cure cravings for alcohol and drugs even in the most addicted individuals?
There is such a substance. Cells age and deteriorate. Your health falls apart at the very root. Using IV infusion therapy we administer this anti-aging compound directly into your blood circulation so your cells have access to as much as they need. Treatment is tailored to your individual needs after a detailed consultation.
The n icotinamide a denosine d inucleotide NAD molecule alternates between two forms.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) personal experience thread
Which one is present depends on how it is being utilized. NADH is the oxidized inactive form of the same molecule. If this recycling stops and NADH accumulates the cell runs out of energy and it may die. This was clearly shown in a recent study on brain and kidney cells. SIRT enzymes appear to switch off genes that promote aging such as those that cause inflammation, fat synthesis and storage, and blood sugar management issues. Up until now the only way we knew to positively impact these SIRT enzymes was to go on a very low-calorie diet.
As uncomfortable as it may be, caloric restriction is one of the few ways that has repeatedly been shown to lead to a longer life. However, the tide appears to be turning. Doctors out of the Department of Developmental Biology at the Washington University School of Medicine were the first to show this link in It could be. More research needs to be done. But one thing seems clear: It certainly has an impact on your body at the cellular level, and it may just turn back the hands of time.
It is well known that ATP levels get depleted in muscles while exercising. This simply stands to reason. A study done in using both trained and untrained healthy volunteers helped tease out the relationship.Posted on September 25, by Debbie Moon.
Leave a Comment. Nicotinamide riboside NR and nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN are two supplements that have taken the longevity and anti-aging world by storm. With animal studies showing exciting results including reversal of age-related diseases, these supplements are an exciting glimpse into the future of reversing aging.
It is a niacin derivative used in all living cells for a bunch of different purposes. A quick overview of cellular energy production for those for whom high school biology is but a distant memory…. When you eat food, your body converts it into the components needed by the cells for producing energy.
The Next Big Anti-Aging Drug: Everything You Need To Know About “NAD”.
For example, carbohydrates break down into their simple components such as glucose. The glucose can then be directly used in the cells to produce ATP, which is the molecule your body uses for energy.
During cellular energy production, glycolysis uses glucose to produce a little ATP net of 2 molecules and acetyl-CoA. Additionally, your body can convert fatty acids into acetyl-CoA when it is in ketosis. Next up in energy production within the mitochondria is oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain. Within the inner membrane of the mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation takes those intermediates of the citric acid cycle and cranks out a bunch of ATP energy molecule.
In fact, it is the main way that all aerobic organisms with mitochondria produce energy. Examples of this include processes such as the repair of DNA and in the maintenance of telomeres, the end caps of DNA that are important in cellular aging. This is foundational for the control of cellular functions. More on sirtuins to come…. As we age, there are a number of physiological changes that take place. You all know this — you lose your hearing and your hair, muscle mass declines, wrinkles increase, weight tends to rise, along with blood glucose levels.
Eventually, you end up with heart problems or diabetes, and then everything goes downhill from there. Let me explain this further…. The regulation of gene expression involves sirtuins. Meaning, the sirtuins must cause the DNA in the cell nucleus to either be accessible or inaccessible for a gene to be transcribed. The ability for the regulation of genes transcribed into proteins is fundamental to cell function.
Every cell nucleus contains the same DNA. The differences between a liver cell and a muscle cell are due to the regulation of which genes are transcribed. Thus, disrupting the sirtuins can lead to mucked up cell function and the symptoms of aging. SIRT1 codes for the sirtuin 1 protein. It involves sensing nutrient availability and thus linked to problems with insulin resistance.
Studies show animals with insulin resistance have decreased SIRT1 levels. When researchers increase SIRT1 in animals, they are resistant to the problems of obesity and insulin resistance that a high-fat diet induces in them.Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers. Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list.
Posted 08 March - PM. Is there a Reddit-style sidebar here? Posted 09 March - PM. Posted 10 March - AM. Which to get? Depends on how you want to take it. Sinclair injected mice with NMN, probably because it's more water soluble than NR and thus more suitable for injection.
Orally, it may solely be a decision based on price. NMN gets converted to NR by gut flora in the intestinal tract but neither are absorbed directly.
NR is the only one of the two to get cleaved, however, by an intestinal enzyme allowing the resulting metabolite to be absorbed. So it might not matter which you take orally assuming your gut is not probiotic deficient but taking NR does save one step.
There may be some difference in survival chances on the trip through the stomach but I don't know that's been proven yet. I have heard some talk of applying an enteric coating which could make a difference.
Niagen is a trade name of NR Nicotinamide Riboside. The Colorado clinical trials publication is eminent. It will show that Niagen lowers blood pressure and many other health benefits."You cannot be like them" - (r/AskReddit)
NMN has done well in mice studies. But there is no human clinical trial results available yet. NAM is the old fashioned vitamin B3 Nicotinamide. There are close to half a million people taking Niagen now and it is almost 5 years since launch. No serious side effects have been reported. I would appreciate it if those who downvoted this guy for this comment to come out and make a proper retort to his bold assertions. Posted 12 March - PM. It very lightly touches on some differences between supplements nicotinic acid or niacin, nicotinamide, and tryptophan although I don't think Dr.When our cells need to perform essential functions, they ask our blood for energy in the form of glucose and fatty acids.
These processes reverse the effects of aging by making your cells look — and act — younger:. Together, these benefits reverse the effects of aging in every cell of the body. This makes it difficult for cells to process the energy they need — their mitochondrial function is severely impaired. Mitochondrial depletion in every cell of the body is one of the major reasons behind the physical symptoms of aging.
More and more studies are being done every year on this exciting new compound. Inthere were studies published on niacinamide. Inthere were 1, A study published in PLoS One measured the effects of nicotinamide on repairing arsenic and ultraviolet radiation-damaged skin.
In developing countries, arsenic contamination of water leads to a higher risk of arsenic-induced skin cancer. After just one week, researchers examined the tissue of the 2 year old mice and found that it closely resembled the tissue of six month old mice.
This is theorized to provide a more sustained release of energy throughout the day. These clinical trials are being led by the same Harvard Researchers that produced the study listed above, as well as teams from the University of New South Wales and other institutions around the world.
Beyond Resveratrol: The Anti-Aging NAD Fad
Supplement manufacturers claim that taking just one or two pills per day can reverse the effects of aging. In reality, many of these supplements are absurdly under-dosed.
In reality, you want at least mg 1 gram or more in order to see any benefits. The Food and Nutrition Board recommends a daily intake of 14 to 18 milligrams for niacinamide and niacin, with the upper intake level being 35 mg per day. However, that upper intake level is routinely exceeded when taking niacinamide for various conditions.
When taken to prevent age-related eye disease, patients take up to mg by mouth. When taken to prevent clogged arteries, patients take 3, to 4, mg by mouth. And when taken to prevent heart disease, patients take anywhere from 0. Most of the benefits from niacin supplementation occur after doses of at least one gram. There are a couple of places in the above article where info on niacinamide is suddenly given, in a discussion that is otherwise about nicotinamide.
Despite the similarity in these two words, niacinamide and nicotinamide are NOT the same thing. Makes me wonder about the validity of the stats, and which substance they are actually referring to! This article is not accurate! I do not know what kind was used in the mice study The recommended dose of nicotinamide riboside is mg not 1g. I have not tried it my self but the science is sound i believe, I ordered mg x 60 supply from ebay, look at the dosage if you want to find it.
PLEASE take Bee Pollen make sure you get it from a quality Bee Keeper - stay away from Bee Pollen from the Health Food Stores start slow with 1 teaspoon a day — increase slowly until you get up to 3 tablespoons a day 1 at breakfast 1 at lunch 1 at mid afternoon. Trust me Mother Nature knows what she is doing by giving us our little buddies the bees gifts to us. Bee healthy Bee. My name is Jeanne'. Due to bio-availability and absorption I highly recommend NR from chromodex for any oral supplementation.
Hope this information helps.
WAY over priced as all they do is use a mg bag of Normal Saline 0. William Hitt was a fraud to say the least:.Since that article was published I've received an onslaught of questions about this mysterious molecule called NAD. Plus, NAD can be dangerous. Along with Thomas, today's podcast features Dr. A biochemical pharmacologist with a Ph. A secondary interest is in the effect of exposure to novel nutritional components, such as polyphenols, on human cellular response to oxidative stress, with a goal of detecting and correcting early degenerative biochemical changes associated with aging-related degenerative disease.
With forty-eight articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, Dr. Grant is perhaps the most prolific author in the field of NAD research.
In addition to Dr. Grant, we are joined by Dr. Nicotinamide NMN vs. Ask Ben a Podcast Question. Would a shot be just as helpful as an IV or would it be too uncomfortable? Yes, it is amazing. I discussed it in my recent podcast with Dr.
If you were me should I consider taking the rest in a short period of time or mgs every week or so? Do you have updated contact info for him so I can begin the at home treatment.
Thank you. This podcast mainly talked about IVs, I really am not a fan of needles and doubt theres any doctor in my area doing this. Doesnt seem reasonable. Pau d' Arco tea is also a natural source. Looks like Thorne has discontinued the Niacel line; I wonder why? If you simultaneously support yourself with MTHF and other methyl precursors, such as dark leafy greens, organ meats and magnesium should be okay.
In regards to Niacel: Looks like they are discontinuing mg, but mg is still available. They also have a cool product called ResveraCel that's worth checking out.
I was taking 4 a day for 3 days then 1 a day for 2 more.At the time its most famous was SRT, a proprietary resveratrol formulation. Resveratrol and other sirtuin activators are believed to mimic the effects of calorie restriction. Although not entirely proven in humans, for animals — ranging from simple lifeforms like yeast to large mammals like dogs and rhesus monkeys — calorie restriction without malnutrition might be the one known thing which can slow down the aging process.
Rhesus monkeys are thought to be the most similar physiologically to humans, which is why they are so often used in medical studies. These photos are from a study conducted by the University of Wisconsin published in issue of Science Magazine 1. On the left is a On the right is a monkey of the same age, but who has been on a calorie restrictive diet since an early age.
Those photos are worth more than a thousand words. While not studied for hair loss or male pattern baldness, it certainly should be! Some studies have even found it be more effective than exercise at increasing life span. True, exercise protects against problems that reduce lifespan — like diabetes and heart disease — but only calorie restriction has been shown to slow primary aging 2. The exact reason why is unknown.
Some wonder if a similar effect might be possible if we could find a way how to boost NAD levels. Sinclair in on a CBS 60 Minutes episode covering resveratrol. Before the NAD supplement, it was all about resveratrol. Red wine and grape juice — both of which only contain minuscule amounts of resveratrol — were being touted as a superfoods.
Some went so far as to claim it was the official Dr. Oz approved method which was a lie, he does not sell or endorse supplements. Here we are now almost a decade later. Nearly a billion dollars paid for sirtuins activators, but no drugs on the market.
From excitement to silence. So what happened to the resveratrol hype? Is it possible Niagen is more effective? The fact that resveratrol has faded in popularity is not surprising, considering the suspected high doses needed and the fact that resveratrol and presumably, similar compounds are highly sensitive to degradation from light, heat, and air.
The dosage conversion of resveratrol milligrams per kilogram of body weight in animal models was often exponentially higher than what those resveratrol supplements offer you.
That being said, as per the words of one biotech insider here at Superfoodly, a billion dollars and one decade later with nothing to show is not that unusual in pharma. Will nicotinamide riboside follow the same path as the earlier generation of sirtuin activators and fade away?
Often times, it has more to do with prioritizing spending for shareholder return and choosing which drug candidates will produce revenue the fastest. Only GlaxoSmithKline truly knows how viable — or not — their portfolio of sirtuins activators might actually be.
There has been some activity, but not a lot. Mice on a standard diet vs. SRT supplementation. Published in Aging Cell 13, pp— Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. There were 40 patients involved receiving either placebo or escalating doses of SRT In terms of safety, both the drug and placebo groups experienced comparable side effects, which were said to be either mild or moderate. As you see in the graph, the higher the dosage, the more effective the treatment was.
That may sound great and it is but the problem is that even though it was published inthe study was initiated in and last updated in 5. The drugs?